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Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0331, entry 40
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KARL, m. | a word common to all Teut. languages, although not recorded in Ulf.; A. S. car l, ceorl; Engl. carle, churl; Germ, kerl, etc.] :-- a man, opp. to a woman; brigðr er karla hugr konuin, Hm. 90; kostum drcpr kvenna karla ofriki, Am. 69; often in allit. phrases, karla ok konur, konur ok karlar, etc.; bæði karlar ok konur, Fms. i. 14, Kb. 276, 298; kvenna ok karla, Edda 21; drápu þeir menu alia, unga ok gamla, konur sem karla, Fms. ii. 134, viii. 432; er þat ekki karla at annask um matreiðu, Nj. 48; taldi hón afleiðis þoka kurteisi karlanna, er þá skyldi heita vtrða fyrir þeim sem ohraustum konum, Bs. i. 340; karlar tólf vetra gamlir eða ellri cru log-segendr eða lög-sjácndr, Gr;ig. ii. 31; yngri menn en sextan vetra gamlir karlar, eða konur yngri en tuttugu, K. Þ. K.; samborin systir, bæôi til karls ok konu, a sister on the father's and mother's side, D. N. ii. 528; spurði hvat konu varðaði ef turn vicri í brókum jafnan svá sem karlar, Ld. 136; svu er ir. ælt um karla ef þeir klæðask kvenna klæðnaði, Grág. (Kb.) ii. 204. COMPDS: karla-fólk, n. male folk; brenndu hann itiui ok allt karla-fólk en konur gengu ut, Dropl. 4. karla-fot, n. pl. metis attire, Bs. i. 653, Sturl. i. 65, Ld. 276, v. 1. karla-siðr, m. habits of men, Grág. i. 338. karla- skííli, a, m. a room for men, Dipl. v. 18. karla-vegr, m. the male side, side where the men sit, the right hand in a church, etc., i. e. opp. to kvenna vegr, D. N. iv. 283. karls-efhi, n. a nickname, one who promises to be a doughty man, Landn. karls-ungi, a, m. a nick- name, Sturl. iii. 258. B. In a political sense, the common folk, opp. to great folk, see jarl; vér karla born ok kerlinga, we bairns of carles and carlines, Hkr. i. (in a verse), opp. to hróðniögr Haralds, the king's son; þaðan eru komnar Karla rettir, Rm. 22; era þat karls sett er at kvernum stendr, Hkv. 2. 2; kiilluðu Karl, Rm. 18; ek em konungs dóttir en eigi karls, I am a king's daughter and not a carle's. Fas. i. 225; skyldi hón gacta hjarðar ok aldri annat vitask, en hón vxri karls dóttir ok kerlingar, 22 (of a king's daughter in disguise): in the allit. phrase, fyrir konung ok karl, /or king and churl, D. N. i. 523, ii. 747, Gþl. 137; so in the saying, þat er margt Í karls hiisi sem eigi er í konungs garði, there are many things in the carle's cottage that are no! in the king's palace, Gísl. 79, Fas. iii. 155, Mag. 73: mod., það er mart í koti karís sem kongs er tkki í ranni; so also in the popular tales, which often begin with the phrase, that there was a Kongr og druttning í riki sinn og karl og kerling í Garðs-horni, and have as a standing incident that the churl's son marries the king's daughter, Ísl. Jjjóðs. ii, cp. also 0. T. (1853) pref.; svo byrjar þessa sögu at karl bjó ok átti sér kerlingu, Pare, (begin.); karl hefir bi'nt ok kona öldruð, Fb. ii. 331 (in a verse); karls son, a churl's son, Fms. ix. 509. karla-cettir, f. pl. the churls, Rm, II. a house-carle, servant; hrundu þeir fram skútv., ok hlupu þar á sex karlar, Nj. 18; bun


Source: Torp, page b0038, entry 6
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kar(a)la, ker(a)la m. alter Mann, reifer Mann. an. karl alter Mann, reifer Mann, Ehemann, Mann aus dem Volke, kerling f. altes Weib; ags. ceorl m. gemeinfreier Mann, Ehemann, engl. churl Kerl, mnd. kerle; ahd. karal, karl Mann, Ehemann, Buhle, nhd. (nd.) Kerl. Vgl. gr. [ghrale'os] alt, [ge'rwn] u. s. w. - arm. cer Greis.

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       •ker (PGmc) is the parent entry of karala in Torp's hierarchy.

Cultural category
       • Semantic category: Law

Source: Bosworth/Toller, page b0151, entry 24
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CEORL, es; m. I. a freeman of the lowest class, CHURL, countryman, husbandman; homo liber, rusticus, colonus :-- Ceorles weorþig sceal beón betýned a churl's close must be fenced, L. In. 40; Th. i. 126, 13. Se ceorl, 60; Th. i. 140, 8. Swá we eác settaþ be eallum hádum, ge ceorle ge eorle so also we ordain for all degrees, whether to churl or earl [gentle or simple], L. Alf. pol. 4; Th. i. 64, 3. Twelfhyndes mannes áþ forstent vi ceorla áþ a twelve hundred man's oath stands for six churls' oaths, L. O. 13; Th. i. 182, 19. Be ceorles gærstúne of a husbandman's meadow, L. In. 42; Th. i. 128, 4, 5. Landes [MS. londes] ceorl a land's man, Bt. Met. Fox 12, 54; Met. 12, 27. II. a man, husband; vir, maritus :-- Ceorla cyngc king of the commons, Chr. 1020; Erl. 160, 23. Ealdan ceorlas wilniaþ old men wish, Bt. 36, 5; Fox 180, 7. Clypa ðínne ceorl voca virum [husband] tuum, Jn. Bos. 4, 16, 17. Ðú hæfdest fíf ceorlas thow hast had five husbands, 4, 18. III. a free man, as opposed to þeów, and to þrl a slave; or as opposed to þegen a thane or nobleman, as we say, 'gentle or simple:' -- We witan ðæt, þurh Godes gyfe, þrl wearþ to þegene, and ceorl wearþ to eorle, sangere to sacerde, and bócere to biscope we know that, by the grace of God, a slave has risen to a thane, and a ceorl [free man] has risen to an earl, a singer to a priest, and a scribe to be a bishop, L. Eth. vii. 21; Th. i. 334, 7-9. Gif ceorl geþeáh, ðæt he hæfde fullíce fíf hída ágenes landes, cirican and cycenan [MS. Ky-cenan UNCERTAIN ], bell-hús and burh-geat-setl, and sunder-note on cynges healle, ðonne wæs he ðonon-forþ begen-rihtes weorþe if a free man thrived, so that he had fully five hides of his own land, church and kitchen, bell-house and a city-gate-seat, and special duty in the king's hall, then was he thenceforth worthy of thane-right, L. R. 2; Th. i. 190, 14-17. [Chauc. cherl: Wyc. cherl, churl: Laym. cheorl: Orm. cherl a young man: Plat. keerl: Frs. tzierl: O. Frs. tzerle, tzirle: Dut. karel, m: Ger. M. H. Ger. kerl, m: O. H. Ger. charal, charl, m; Icel. karl, m.] DER. ceorl-boren, -folc, -ian, -isc, -iscnes, -líe, -líce, -strang: æcer-ceorl, hús-.


Source: Bosworth/Toller, page d0117, entry 24
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carl. Dele bracket, and add :-- Arcton hátte án tungol on norðdle . . . þone hátað lwede menn carles wn, Lch, iii. 270, 11. [O. H. Ger. char(a)l, karl vir, maritus: Icel. karl a man.] [From Scandinavian.] v. butse-carl, and cf. ceorl.


Source: Bosworth/Toller, page d0130, entry 28
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cniht. Add: I. a youth:--Scipia wæs cniht (adolescens), Ors. 4, 10; S. 196, 12. Ic eom cnioht (puer), Past. 49, 7. his cnieht lrde: 'Sunu mín,' 287, 10. Se drý wearþ fringa geong cniht and sóna eft eald man, Bl. H. 175, 3. þone cniht (Hæsten's son) ágef and þæt wíf, Chr. 894; P. 86, 31. Ðone cniht (Alcibiades se æðeling, 19) ðurhseón, Bt. 32, 2; F. 116, 23. Cnihtas, geonglingas puberes, Wrt. Voc. ii. 66, 12. Ealle ðá cnihtas and ealle ðá mdena (the firstborn of Egypt), Ors. 1, 7; S. 38, 15. I a. an unmarried man. v. cniht-hád, II:--Hit bið rihtlic líf þæt cniht þurhwunige on his cnihtháde, þæt he on rihtre we gewífige, Wlfst. 304, 20: Ll. Th. ii. 332, 28. II. a servant, man, follower:--Cniht clitus vel clientulus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 50, 32. Hit is niédðearf ðæt mon his hláford ondrde, and se cneoht his mágister, Past. 109, 13. Karl þæs cincges cniht, Cht. Th. 312, 33. Ic geann Wulfgáre mínan cnihte þæs landes, 545, 28: 559, 10. Ic geann Æðelwine mínon cnihte ðæs swurdes þe r sealde, 561, 20. Ic gean Wulmre mínum cnihte landes for his gódra gearnunge, Cht. E. 238, 19. Cnihta parasitorum, An. Ox. 4165. II a. a man engaged in military service, a soldier:--Byrð se cniht his swurd portat miles gladium, Ælfc. T. Grn. 20, 26. Þú sylst árleásum cnihte (militi) þæt þú nelt syllan sácerde, Scint. 109, 10. Þá cnihtas (the two spies in Jericho), Jos. 2, 14. Wron innan þám castele Oda s cnihtas, Chr. 1087; P. 224, 4. Seofen hundred þes cynges cnihta, 1094; P. 229, 17. Sume of ðám cnihtan, 1083; P. 215, 9. II b. a disciple, scholar. v. leorning-cniht:--Se hþena scop and his cniht historicus ejusque breviator, Ors. 1, 5; S. 32, 28. Paulus manode his cneoht (discipulum), Past. 97, 12. Cniht, 169, 16. III. a soldier of rank, a knight:--Ealle þá ríce men, arcebiscopas, and leód&b-tilde;s, abbodas and eorlas, þegnas and cnihtas, Chr. 1086; P. 220, 2. Swíðe góde cnihtas, Eustatius þe iunga, and Rógeres eorles þreó sunan, and ealle þá betstboren men þe wron innan þisan lande, 1087; P. 224, 28. v. búr-, ceáp-, cípe-, hel-, heorþ-, híréd-, hors-cniht.


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0003, entry 7
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AÐAL, [O. H. G. adal, genus; cp. also A. S. éðele, nobilis; Old Engl. and Scot, ethel; Germ, edel; eðla- and eðal- came from mod. Dan. into Icel. aðall, nobility. It does not occur in old writings in this sense.] I. n. nature, disposition, inborn native quality, used only in poetry; jóðs a., childish, Ýt. 13; ósnotrs aðal, foolish, insipid, Hm. 106; args a., dastardly, Ls. 23, 24; drengs a., noble, Km. 23; ódyggs a., bad, Hsm. 19. 2. in the sense of offspring; aðul Njarðar (where it is n. pl.?), the gods, the offspring of Njord, Hallfred in a poem, vide Fs. 59. II. used in a great many COMPDS, chief-, head-. aðal-akkeri, n. sheet-anchor, Fms. x. 130: . metaph., Bs. i. 756. aðal-bjórr, s, m. prime beaver skin, Eb. (in a verse). aðal-borinn, part., v. óðalborinn. aðal-ból, n. a manor-house, farm inhabited by its master, opp. to tenant farms, Grág. (Kb.) ii. 150; also the name of a farm, Hrafn. 4. aðal-festr, f., v. alaðsfestr. aðal-fylking, f. main force, main body, Hkr. ii. 361. aðal-haf, n. the main, Fms. iv. 177. aðal-henda, u, f., v. alhenda. aðal-hending, f. full, complete rhymes, such as all -- hall, opp. to skot- hending, q. v., Edda (Ht.) aðal-hendr, adj. verse in full rhyme, Edda, id. aðal-kelda, u, f. chief well, Karl. 442. aðal-kirkja, ju, f. chief part of a church, viz. choir and nave, opp. to forkirkja, Sturl. ii. 59. aðalliga, adv. completely, thoroughly; a. dauðr, quite dead, 656 C. 31, Fms. ii. 313; a. gamall, quite old, iii. 171. aðal-mein, n. great pain, Fms. vi. (in a verse), aðal-merki, n. the head-standard, Pr. 177. aðal- ritning, f. chief writing, Sks. 13. aðal-skáli, a, m. the chief apart- ment of a skáli, the hall, as distinguished from a forhús, Eb. 43. aðal- tré, n. trunk of a tree; eigi munu kvistir betri en a. (a proverb), Fms. iv. 33. aðal-troll, n. downright ogre, Fas. iii. 179. aðal-túlkr, s, m. chief advocate, Bs. i. 445. aðal-túpt, f. esp. in pl. ir = óðals-toptir, the ground on which a manor-bouse is built, toft of an allodial farm (Norse), flytja hús af aðaltóptum, remove it, N. G. L. i.


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0006, entry 36
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af-gamall, adj. [af- intens. ?], very old, decrepid from age, Nj. 190; a. karl, Fms. ii. 182, Sks. 92.


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0009, entry 1
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the same signification, a. with dat, a. lögunum, to break, neglect the law, Al 4. . with acc. (now always so), a. sitt höfuðrnerki, Karl. 189. . uncert. dat. or acc., a. Guðs hlýðni, Edda (pref.) 144, Stj. 241. . with at and a following infin., Gþl. 183; konungar afræktust at sitja at Uppsölum, left off, Hkr. ii. 97. . absol., Fms. vii. 221, 188, Gþl. 506.


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0011, entry 9
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ALA, ól, ólu, alið; pres. el, [Ulf. a single time uses the partic. alans = (GREEK, and twice a weak verb aliþs = GREEK, a fatling. The word seems alien to other Teut. idioms, but in Lat. we find alere; cp. the Shetland word alie, to nourish.] Gener. to give birth to, nourish, support, etc. I. to bear, esp. of the mother; but also of both parents; rarely of the father alone, to beget: börn ólu þau, they begat children, Rm. 12; þat barn er þau ala skal eigi arf taka, Grág. i. 178: of the father alone, enda eru börn þau eigi arfgeng, er hann elr við þeirri konu, which be begets by that woman, 181; but esp. of the mother, to bear, give birth to; jóð ól Amma, Rm. 7; þóra ól barn um sumarit, Eg. 166, Fms. iv. 32, i. 14; hon fær eigi alit barnit, Fas. i. 118. . metaph. to produce, give rise to; en elr hverr þessara stafa níu annan staf undir sér, Skálda 162. 2. pass. to be born, begotten; börn þau öll er alin eru fyrir jól, who are born, N. G. L. i.; 377; the phrase, alnir ok úbornir, born and unborn, present and future generations, has now become aldir ok óbornir; eigu þau börn er þar alask (who are born there) at taka arf út hingat, Grág. i. 181; barn hvert skal færa til kirkju sem alit er, every child that is born, K. Þ. K. 1; ef barn elsk svá naer páskum, is born, 16. . of animals (rarely), justus heitir forað, þat elsk (is engendered) í kviði eins dýrs, 655 xxx. 4. II. to nourish, support, Lat. alere: 1. esp. to bring up, of children; the Christian Jus Eccl., in opposition to the heathen custom of exposing chil- dren, begins with the words, ala skal barn hvert er borit verðr, every child that is born shall be brought up, K. Á. ch. 1. . adding the particle upp; skal eigi upp ala, heldr skal út bera barn þetta, this bairn shall not be brought up, but rather be borne out (i. e. exposed to perish), Finnb. 112. 2. to feed, give food to, harbour, entertain; ala gest ok ganganda, guests; ala þurfamenn, the poor, D. in deeds of gift; en maðr er þar býr skal ala menn alla þá er hann hyggr til góðs at alnir sé, he shall harbour them, D. i. 169; ala hvern at ósekju er vill. to harbour, 200; Guð elf gesti (a proverb), God pays for the guests, Bs. i. 247; sótt elr sjúkan, fever is the food of the sick; utanhrepps göngumenn skal enga ala, ok eigi gefa mat, hvárki meira minna, gangrels of an outlying district shall none of them be harboured, nor have meat given them, neither more nor less, Grág. i. 293, 117. . of animals, to nourish, breed; einn smásauð er hann ól heima í húsi sínu, one pet lamb which he had reared at home in his own house, Stj. 516; segir allæliligan, ok kvað verða mundu ágæta naut ef upp væri alinn, of a live calf, Eb. 318. 2. pass, to be brought tip, educated; ólusk (grew up) í ætt þar, æstir kappar (or were born), Hdl. 18; alask upp, to be brought up; hence uppeldi, n. III. metaph. in such phrases as, ala aldr sinn, vitam degere, to pass one's days, Bárð. 165: the phrase, ala e-t eptir e-m, to give one encouragement in a thing, bring one tip in, esp. in a bad sense; ól hann eptir engum manni ódáðir, Joh. 625. 93: ala á mál, to persist in, urge on a thing; karl elr á málið (begs hard) at Gunnar mundi til hans fara, Sd. 172, Ísl. ii. 133, 163 :-- the present phrase is, ala e-t við e-n, to bear a grudge against...; and in a negative sense, ala ekki, to let bygones be bygones: ala önn fyrir, to provide for: a. öfund, sorg, um e-t, to grudge, feel pang (poët.),


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0012, entry 37
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al-eyða, dd, to devastate, Karl. 370.



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