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Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0104, entry 14
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DRÁPA, u, f. a heroic, laudatory poem; this word is probably derived from drepa, to strike, i. e. to strike the chords of an instrument, vide drepa A. I, as poems were at early times accompanied by instru- mental music: the drápas were usually composed in the so-called ' drótt- kvæît' metre, q. v., and were much in fashion from the loth to the I2th or even to the i^th century, but esp. flourished at the end of the loth and during the í ith; the earliest poems of this kind on record are of the end of the 9th century: even poems in honour of gods, Christ, the holy cross, saints, etc. are called drapur if composed in the proper metre; but most of them are in honour of kings, earls, princes, or eminent men, vide Skáldatal. A drapa usually consisted of three parts, upp-haf intro- duction, stef or stefjamál the burden or middle part interpolated with artificial burdens, whence the name stefja-drupa, and lastly slaemr or * peroration; according to the length, a drupa is tvitug or a poem of twenty stanzas, sextug or si A ty stanzas, and so on; it is called erfi-drápa if in praise of a deceased man, mansöngs-drápa (Germ, minne-sang) if addressed to a lady-love, etc.; as to metre, we have tog-drápa, hrynhend drápa, etc.; drápa is sometimes distinguished from flokkr, a less lauda- tory and shorter poem without burdens, Fms. vi. 391; hví ortir þú flokk um konunginn, eðr þótti þér hann ekki drápunnar verôr, Ísl. ii. 237, and the classical passage Knytl. S. ch. 19. Passages in the Sagas referring to the delivery of these poems are very numerous, e. g. Gunnl. S. ch. 7-9, Eg. ch. 62, 63 (Höfuð-lausn), 80 (Sonatorek and Arinbjarnar-d.), 81 (Beru- drápa), Ld. ch. 29 (Hús-drápa), Hallfr. S. ch. 6, II, Bjarn. 6, 39, Fms. iii. 65, v. 173-175, Knytl. S. I. e., O. H. L. ch. 60, 61, Har. S. Harð. (Fms. vi.) ch. 24, 66, no (the interesting story of Stuf the Blind), Skáldat. 252, 268, Fb. iii. 241, 242, Hkr. i. 185, 186; the last on record is Sturl. iii. 303-306, referring to A. D. 1263, cp. also Sturl. ii. 56; most of these poems derive their name from the king or person in whose honour they were composed, e. g. Olafs-d., Knuts-d. (king Canute), Eiriks-d., etc., vide Fms. xii, s. v. kvæði, or Jómsvíkiuga-d., Islendinga- d., the name of a laudatory poem addressed to the Icelandic people; or referring to other subjects, as Vell-ekla (want of gold), Hafgerðinga-d., Landn. 106, or Kross-d., Róða-d. (the Holy Rood), etc. Mythical drapas are, e. g. Ragnars-d., Haustlöng, Hús-d. COMPDS: drapu-mal, n. a lawsuit for a d., viz. a love song (mansongs-d.), which songs were forbid- den, Fs. 87. drápu-stúfr, m. a nickname for a poetaster, Landn. 168.


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0105, entry 16
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DREPA, pret. drap, 2nd pers. drapt, mod. drapst, pl. drápu; pret. subj. draepi; part, drepit; pres. drep; with the suft". neg. pret. drap-a. Orkn.: [A. S. drepan; Dan. drœbe; Swed. drapa; O. H. G. trefan; mod. Germ. treffen, whence the mod. Dan. treffe, in the sense to hit; Ulf. uses slahan and stautjan, but never dripan; in Engl. the word is lost.] A. WITH ACC., OR ABSOL. högg (a blow) or the like being under- stood, to strike, beat: I. act. of music, to strike the chords, (cp. phrases such as, slá danz, to strike up for a dance; slagr is battle and poem, Trolla-slagr and Gygjar-slagr are names of poems); hann tók hörpu sína ok drap strengi (struck the strings) til slags, Stj. 458 (hence drápa, a so?ig); d. e-n vendi, t o s trike with a rod, Skm. 26: to knock, å. á dyrr, or d. hogg á dyrr, to knock at a door, Nj. 150; síðan gengu þau heim bæði ok drápu á dyrr, 153; cirápu þar á dyrr, Sturl. iii. 154: metaph., d. á e-t, to tou c h slightly on a matter; d. botn or keraldi, to knock the bottom out of a jar, Fms. xi. 34; d. jam, to beat iron (a blacksmith's term) with a sledge-hammer, Grett. 129, cp. drep-sleggja. 2. esp. with the sense of violence, to knock, strike; áfallit hafði drepit hann inn í bátinn, Bs. i. 422; at eigi drepir þú mik í djúp, that thou knockest me not into the deep, Post. 6568. 9; herða klett drep ek þór hálsi af, Ls. 57. p. as a law term, to smite, strike; ef maðr drepr (smites) mann, ok varðar þat skóggang, Grág. ii. 116; eigu menu eigi at standa fyrir þeim inanni er drepit hefir annan, id.; ef maðr drepr mann svá at bein brotna, 14; vænisk maðr því er drap, at..., 15; þat er drep cf bein brotna, ok verðr úæll till dóms er drepit hefir, 16; mi vænisk hinn því, at hann hafi drepit hann, 19. y- tnc phrases, d. e-n til heljar, Grág. ii. 161, or d. til dauðs, to smite todeath; Josua drap til dauða alia þjóð Anakim, Stj. 456; d. í hel, id., Hbl. 27; hence 3. metaph. or ellipt. to kill, pwt todeath, cp. Lat. caedere, Engl. smite; eigi er manni skylt at d. skógarmann, þótt..., Grág. ii. 162; skulu vór mi fara at honum ok d. hann, Nj. 205; þar varð ilia með þeim því at Ásgrímr drap Gaut, 39; til þess at d. Grim, Eg. 114; tóku þeir af eignum jarla konungs en drápu suma, Fms. i. 6; er drepit hafði fóstra hans ..., eigi hæfir at d. svá fríðan svein ..., d. skyldi hvern mann er mann údæmðan vá, 80; konung drápum fyrstan, Am. 97; drap hann (smote with the hammer) hina öldnu jötna systur, ^kv. 32; d. mátti Freyr hann með hendi sinni, Edda 23. p. in a game (of chess), to take a piece; þá drap jarl af honum riddara, Fms. iv. 366; îaflsins er hann hafði drepit, vi. 29; Hvítserkr hélt töfl einni er hann hafði drepit, Fas. i. 285. y. adding prepp. af, niðr, to slaughter, kill off'; þótt hirðmenn þínir so drepnir niðr sem svín, Fms. vii. 243: d. af, to slaughter (cattle); yxni fimm, ok d. af, Ísl. ii. 330; láttu mik d. af þenna lyð, Post. 656 B. 9. 4. metaph. phrases; d. e-m skúta, to taunt, charge one with; áfelli þat er konungr drap oss skvita um, Fms. iv. 310; hjarta drepr stall, the heart knocks as it were against a block of stone from fear, Hkr. ii. 360, Orkn., Fbr. 36 (hence stall-dræpt hjarta, a ' block-beating'faint heart): d. upp eld, to strike fire, Fms. iv. 338: d. sik or droma, to throw off the fetter, Edda 19: d. e-t undir sik, to kn oc k or dra g- down, skahii standa hjá er fjandi drepr mik undir sik, Grett. 126, 101 A: d. slóð, to make a slot or sleuth (trail); d. kyrtlarnir slóðina, the cloaks trailed along the ground so as to lea. vea track, Gísl. 154: to trail or w ake a tr ac k of droves or deer, Lex. Poët.: d. e-t út, to divulge a thing (in a bad sense), Fms. vi. 208; d. yfir e-t, to hide, suppress,, dTzp hann brátt yfir (he soo n mastered) harm sinn, Bs. i. 140 (hence yfir-drep, hyp o- c ri s y, i. e. cloaking). II. reflex., drepask, to perish, die, esp. of beasts; hans drapsk aldrei af megrð ok drephríðum, Eb. 150; drapsk allt hans folk, Fms. v. 250. 2. recipr. to put one another to death; þá drepask bræðr fyrir ágirni sakar, Edda 40; mi drepask merm (smite one another), eðr særask eðr vegask, Grág. ii. 92; ef menu d. um nætr, Fms. vii. 296; er sjálfir bárusk vápn á ok drápusk, viii. 53; en er bændr fundu at þeir drápusk sjálfir, 68; drepask niðr á ieið fram, Ld. 238; drepask menn fyrir, to killone another's men, Fms. vii. 17?! görðisk af því fjandskapr með þeim Steinólfi svá at þeir drápusk þar (menn ?) fyrir, Gullþ. 14. III. impers., drepr honum aldregi ský (acc.) í augu, hi s eyes never get clouded, of the eagle flying in the face of the sun, Hom. 47; ofrkappit (acc.) drepr fyrir þeim (their high spirits break down) þegar hamingjan brestr, Fms. vi. 155; drap þó heldr í fyrir honum, he rather grew worse, i. e. his eyes . gr ew weaker, Bjarn. 59; drcpr ór hljóð (acc.) fyrst or konunginum, the kin g" became silent at once, Fms. xi. 115; stall drepr or hjarta e-s, Fbr. 36 (vide above, I. 4); ofan drap flaugina (acc.), the flaug wa s knocked down, Bs. 1. 422; regn drepr í gögnum e-t, the rain beats through the thatch or cover, Fagrsk. 123 (in a verse). p. in mod. usage, drepa is even used in the sense to drip (= drjupa), e. g. þak, hús drepr, the thatch, house lets water B. WITH DAT,; I. denoting gentle movement; in many cases


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0590, entry 5
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STEF, n. (root stafi), gen. pl. stefja, dat. stefjum, a summons, term, time fixed, (= stefna); viku-stef, a week's notice, Eg. 274; var kveðit á viku stef, 394; þriggja nátta stef, a summons with three days' notice, Grág. i. 385; bardaga stef, Al. 54. II. a stave in a lay, burden, refrain; hann orti Hafgerðinga-drápu, þat er þetta stef í, -- 'Minar bið ek,' etc., Landn. 106; kvæðit, ok er þetta stefit í, Ísl. ii. 222; Þórarinn orti þá stef, ok setti í kvæðit, ... ok er þetta stefit, Ó.H. 180, Eb. i. 210. In the old poems, called drapa, the middle part had a burden; this part was called 'stef' or stefja-bálkr, m. the 'stave-balk,' stave-section, Ó.H. 180; and consisted of several equal sets of verses, called stefja-mel or stefja-mál, n. stave-measure; the number of stanzas to each 'stave-set' varies in different poems (3, 4, 5, 7); the number of the sets also varies according to the length of the poem, e.g. if the stave-section were of twenty-one stanzas it would fall into seven 'sets' (3 x 7); if of twenty, into five (4 x 5); er rétt at setja kvæðit með svá mörgum stefjamelum sem vill, Edda (Ht.) i. 686; hef ek þar lokit stefjum, here the staves end; hefja upp stef, and so on, see the remarks s.v. slæmr. The stave or burden usually stands at the end of each 'set;' the burden might even be distributed among the stanzas of the stefjamel, as may be seen in the Togdrápa on king Canute in Ó.H., or in the poem Rek-stefja or Banda-dápa (Hkr. i. and Scripta Hist. Island, iii.)


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0602, entry 16
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STÆLA, d, [stál], to steel, put steel into, a blacksmith's term; hence to temper, hann lét stæla oddana, Str. 77; sverð stælt með eitri, a sword tempered with poison, poisoned, Bær. 15 (= eitri herðr); stæltr lé, Grág. i. 501. II. metaph. to intercalate a poem with burden (stál); stefjum verðr at stæla brág, Mkv. 11; þá tók Sighvatr at yrkja drápu um Ólaf konung enn Helga, ok stælti eptir Sigurðar-sögu ... þú skalt fara til móts við Sighvat skáld mitt ok seg honum svá, at ek vil eigi at hann stæli drápu þá, er hann yrkir um mik, eptir Sigurðar-sögu, heldr vil ek at hann stæli eptir Uppreistar-sögu, ... Sighvatr sneri þá drápunni, ok stælti hana eptir Uppreistar-sögu. Fb. ii. 394; -- Fms. v. 210 (l.c.) has 'drápu' wrongly for 'sögu;' for the sense is that the poet intended to borrow the subject for the burden from the Saga of Sigurd Fafnisbani, but the king bade him not do so, but take the burden from the History of the Creation: specimens of such poems, furnished with intercalated sentences taken from mythical subjects or old wise sayings, are the drapa of Kormak on Earl Sigurd, and the Edda (Ht.) 13 :-- neut. stælt, intercalated sentences (stál) in an old poem, þessa fígúru er vér köllum stælt, Skálda 198; standa þessir hættir mest í því sem stælt er kveðit, 206; þetta er stælt kallat, Edda (Ht.) 125; hjá-stælt, the 'stál' at the end of a verse line, id., -- ok skal orðtak vera forn minni, Edda (Ht.) 2. hence in mod. usage stæla means to plagiarise, imitate; stæla eptir e-u.



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