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Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0025, entry 35
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ASKR, s, m. [A. S. äsc, whence many Engl. local names; Germ. esche], an ash, fraxinus, Edda (Gl.); a. ygdrasils, Edda 10, 11, Pr. 431. 2. anything made of ash: . a spear, prop. ashen spear shaft (cp. GREEK), Þiðr. 304, Edda (Gl.) . a small ship, a bark (built of ash, cp. GREEK, abies); en þeir sigla burt á einum aski, Fas. ii. 206, i. 421: it appears only two or three times in Icel. prose writers; hence may be explained the name of ascmanni, viking, pirate, in Adam Brem. ch. 212 [A. S. äscmen], cp. askmaðr. . a small vessel of wood (freq. in Icel., and used instead of deep plates, often with a cover (asklok) in carved work); stórir askar fullir af skyri, Eg. 549, 550; cp. kyrnu-askr, skyr-askr. . a Norse measure for liquids, equal to four bowls, or sixteen justur, Gþl. 525, N. G. L. i. 328, H. E. i. 396, Fms. vii. 203. COMPDS: aska-smiðr, m. ship-wright (vide .), Eg. 102. aska-spillir, m. a ship-spoiler, i.e. a pirate, a cognom., Glúm., Landn.; v.l. akraspillir, less correctly.


Source: Torp, page b0023, entry 1
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aska m. Esche. an. askr m. Esche; ags. æsc m.; ahd. ask pl. askî, mhd. asch m., nhd. Esche f. mnd. esche. Vgl. serb. jasika f. Esche, asl. jasen (aus ôseno-); lit. sis f. Esche. - cymr. onn (aus osnâ) f. Esche. - lat. ornus (aus osno-).

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Cultural category
       • Semantic category: Plants

Source: Bosworth/Toller, page b0019, entry 35
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ÆSC; g. æsces; pl. nom. acc. æscas, ascas; g. æsca, asca; d. æscum, ascum; m; I. an ash-tree; fraxinus excelsior :-- On ðone æsc to the ash-tree. Cod. Dipl. Apndx. 461; A. D. 956; Kmbl. iii. 450, 3. Æsc fraxinus, Ælfc. Gl. 45; Som. 64, 98. II. the Anglo-Saxon Rune RUNE = æ, the name of which letter in Anglo-Saxon is æsc an ash-tree, hence this Rune not only stands for the letter æ, but for æsc an ash-tree, as, -- RUNE byþ oferheáh, eldum dýre, stíþ staðule the ash-tree is over-high, dear to men, firm in its place, Hick. Thes. vol. i. p. 135; Runic pm. 26; Kmbl. 344, 23. Se torhta æsc the remarkable Rune æsc, Exon. 112a; Th. 429, 24; Rä. 43, 9. III. an ash-spear, a spear, lance; hasta fraxinea, hasta :-- Byrhtnóþ wánd wácne æsc Byrhtnoth brandished his slender ashen spear, Byrht. Th. 132, 68; By. 43: 140, 59; By. 310. Ðe ðé æsca tír æt gúðe forgeaf who to thee gave glory of spears in battle. Cd. 97; Th. 127, 10; Gen. 2108. Asca, g. pl. Exon. 78a; Th. 292, 15; Wand. 99. Æscum with spears. Beo. Th. 3548; B. 1772: Andr. Kmbl. 2195; An. 1099. IV. because boats were made of ash, -- a small ship, a skiff, a light vessel to sail or row in; navis, navigium, dromo :-- Hét Ælfréd cyng timbrian langscipu ongén ða æscas king Alfred commanded to build long ships against those ships, Chr. 897; Th. i. 174, 41. Æsc dromo, Wrt. Voc. 63, 34: 56, 24. [O. H. Ger. asc, m: O. Nrs. askr, m. arbor, fraxinus, vas ligneum, navis, gladius, Egils.] DER. daroþ-æsc, ceaster-: æsc-rind.


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0127, entry 23
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Embla (in Ub. spelt Emla), u, f. a mythol. word, which only occurs in Vsp. 17; and hence in Edda (where it is said that the gods found two lifeless trees, the askr (ash)ERROR and the embla; of the ash they made man, of the embla (woman))ERROR, it is a question what kind of tree the embla was; some suggest a metathesis, qs. emla from ahnr, elm, but the compound emblu-askr, in one of Egil's poems, seems to shew that the embla was in some way related to the ash.


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0134, entry 5
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eski, n. [askr], an ashen box, Edda 17, 21, Fms. ii. 254, Fas. i. 237, Ísl. ii. 79; mod. spelt askja, and used of any small box.


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0444, entry 13
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MÖRK, f., gen. sing. merkr, pl. merkr, [a word common to all Teut, languages] :-- a mark, in weight equal to eight ounces or half a pound; twenty merkr make a fjórðung, q.v.; eighty merkr = a vætt; þat er lögpundari at átta fjórðungar eru í vætt, en tuttugu merkr skolu í fjórðungi vera, Grág. i. 499. 2. a mark, by weight or value, of gold and silver, eight ounces (átta aurar) go to a mark, 732. 16; mörk silfrs, mörk gulls, þrim mörkum gulls, Fms. vii. 235, Grág., Sagas passim; mörk vegins silfrs, O.H.L. 23; gullhringa ok stóð mörk hvárr, Eg. 464: often used absol. so that the standard can only be seen from the context, verðr hann útlagr þrem mörkum, Grág. i. 16, 132; varðar honum þat sex merkr, tólf merkr, 319; varðar þat þriggja marka sekð, 499; hversu mikit er þetta? hann sagði hundrað marka, Nj. 4; Áðalsteinn vill gefa skilling manni hverjum frjálsbornum, en mörk sveitar-höfðingja hverjum, Eg. 280; hann skal gjalda hálfa mörk fyrir eyri, Grág. i. 208; þrjú hundruð hundraða eptir forngildu marka-tali, Dipl. v. 20; svá mikit ofa-fé at trautt kom marka-tali á, Fær. 11; hann var svá auðigr af gulli at engi vissi marka-tal, Fms. vi. 176; merkr-kaup, a purchase to the amount of a mörk, Gþl. 497; merkr-þjófr, a theft to the value of a mark, N.G.L. i. 326; merkr stykki, a piece amounting to a mark, H.E. ii. 188. As to the standard, the value of a mörk varied at different times and in different countries, see esp. Mr. Dasent's Essay in Burnt Njal. In Icel. the confusion was made still greater, by the fact that (as remarked s.v. eyrir) the word mörk was also used of the wadmal standard (the ell of wadmal), and so the law speaks of a mörk vaðmála, Grág. i. 500; mörk sex ... álna aura, etc., K.Þ.K. 70, 172, but this is a contradiction in terms, for mörk is a weight, not a measure: the real meaning is often only to be made out by the context, e.g. in questions of weregild the weighed mark is no doubt meant. II. of fluid, a pint, viz. half a pottr; in mod. usage all fluids and vessels holding fluids are thus measured, tveggja, þriggja ... marka askr.


Source: Cleasby/Vigfusson, page b0758, entry 1
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æðsti prestr, 63; þeim æðstu prestum, xxvii. 3; þeir æðstu prestar, 6, 20: with which cp. ahumists gudja in Ulf.: þess árs æðsti prestr, John xviii. 15 (where Ulf. 'ahumists' weiha)] :-- higher, highest: I. in a local sense; uppi ok niðri leitaða ek æðra vegar up and down I sought for the higher road, Sól. 52; á bekk annan þann er æðri var, Ld. 294, -- in the old halls the two sets of benches were technically called the æðri, the higher, and the ú-æðri, th e lower; as also æðra öndvegi and ú-æðra öndvegi, the upper and lower high-seat, passim: þeir náðu uppgöngu ok urðu æðri, higher, Fms. x. 412; ef leysings leysingr verðr veginn, ok á inn æðri (the former, Germ. jener) þar sök ok bætr, Grág. ii. 71; in all other places used, 2. metaph. higher in rank or dignity; heilagir englar, aðrir eru öðrum œðri, ok öfundar engi annan, Greg. 37; œðri tign, Eluc. 12; œðri kraptr, Sks. 25; tólf hofgoðar vóru œztir, Hkr. i. 6; askr Ygdrasils hann er œztr viða, Gm. 44; biskupa allra er páfi œztr, 415. 5; þeim sveini er œztr væri, Heiðrekr segir, Haralds son vera œztan, Fas. i. 526; œztr ok mest virðr, Fms. i. 247; fyrstr eðr êdzstr (sic), Sti, 278, v.l.; hit œzta hof í Gautlandi, Fms. x. 252; inni æztu Guðs þjónustu, K.Á. 36; þar er œzt kirkja Benedikti, Symb. 25: the word is still in freq. use both in speech and in writing, see the references above from the Icel. N.T.


Source: Gordon/Taylor, page b0018, entry 1
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efni til skipsins Naglfars, er goðín ok menn vildi seint at grt
yrði.
En í þessum sævargang flýtr Naglfar; Hrymr heitir
jtunn
er stýrir Naglfari. En Fenrisúlfr ferr með gapanda
munn,
ok er inn neðri kjptr við jrðu, en inn efri við himin;
430
gapa mundi hann meira, ef rúm væri til; eldar brenna ór
augum
hans ok nsum. Miðgarðsormr blæss svá eitrinu,
at
hann dreifir lopt ll ok lg, ok er hann allógurligr, ok er
hann
á aðra hlið úlfinum.
f
þessum gný klofnar himinninn ok ríða þaðan Múspells
435
synir; Surtr ríðr fyrst ok fyrir honum ok eptir bæði eldr brenn-
andi;
sverð hans er gott mjk, af því skínn bjartara en af
sólu.
En er þeir ríða Bifrst, þá brotnar hon. Múspells
megir
sœkja fram á þann vll er Vígríðr heitir; þar kømr ok
þá
Fenrisúlfr ok Miðgarðsormr; þar er ok þá Loki kominn
440
ok Hrymr ok með honum allir hrímþursar, en Loka fylgja
allir
Heljar sinnar, en Múspells synir hafa einir sér fylking,
ok
er bjrt mjk. Vllrinn Vígríðr er hundrað rasta víðr
á
hvern veg.
En
er þessi tíðendi verða, þá stendr upp Heimdallr ok
445
blæss ákafliga í Gjallarhorn ok vekr upp ll goðin, ok eiga
þau
þing saman. Þá ríðr Óðinn til Mímisbrunns ok tekr
ráð
af Mími fyrir sér ok sínu liði. Þá skelfr askr Yggdrasils,
ok
engi hlutr er þá óttalauss á himni eða jrðu. Æsir
herklæða
sik ok allir Einherjar ok sœkja fram á vlluna.
450
Ríðr fyrstr Óðinn með gullhjálminn ok fagra brynju ok geir
sinn,
er Gungnir heitir. Stefnir hann móti Fenrisúlfi, en Þórr
fram
á aðra hlíð honum, ok hann ekki duga honum, því
at
hann hefir fult fang at berjask við Miðgarðsorm. Freyr
bersk
móti Surti, ok verðr harðr s'amgangr, áðr Freyr fellr;
455
þat verðr hans bani, er hann missir þess ins góða sverðs, er
hann
gaf Skírni.
Þá
er ok lauss orðinn hundrinn Garmr, er bundinn er fyrir
Gnípahelli;
hann er it mesta forað. Hann á víg móti Tý,
ok
verðr hvárr ðrum at bana. Þórr berr banaorð af


Source: Gordon/Taylor, page b0019, entry 1
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Miðgarðsormi ok stígr þaðan braut níu fet; þá fellr hann 460
dauðr
til jarðar fyrir eitri því er ormrinn blæss á hann.
iJlfrinn
gleypir Óðin; verðr þat hans bani. En þegar eptir
snýsk
fram Víðarr ok stígr ðrum fœti í neðra kjpt úlfsins;
á
þeim fœti hefir hann þann skó er allan aldr hefir verit til
samnat;
þat eru bjórar þeir er menn sníða ór skóm sínum 465
fyrir
tám eða hæli; því skal þeim bjórum braut kasta maðr
er
at því vill hyggja, at koma Ásunum at liði. Annarri
hendi
tekr hann inn efra kjpt úlfsins ok rífr sundr gin hans,
ok
verðr þat úlfsins bani. Loki á orrostu við Heimdall, ok
verðr
hvárr annars bani. Því næst slyngr Surtr eldi yfir 470
jrðina
ok brennir allan heim. Svá er sagt í Vluspá:
Hátt
blæss Heimdallr, horn's á lopti,
mælir
Óðinn við Míms hfuð;
skelfr
Yggdrasils askr standandi,
ymr
it aldna tré, en jtunn losnar. 475
Hvat's
með Ásum? hvat's með álfum?
Ymr
allr Jtunheimr; Æsir ru á þingi;
stynja
dvergar fyr steindurum,
veggbergs
vísir. Vitu þér enn eða hvat?
Hrymr
ekr austan, hefsk lind fyrir, 480
snýsk
Jrmungandr í jtunmóði;
ormr
knýr unnir, rn mun hlakka,
slítr
nái nefflr; Naglfar losnar.
Kjóll
ferr austan, koma munu Múspells
of
lg lýðir, en Loki stýrir; 485
fara
fíflmegir með freka allir;
þeim
es bróðir Býleists í fr.
Surtr
ferr sunnan með sviga lævi;
skínn
af sverði sól valtíva;
grjótbjrg
gnata, en gífr rata, 490
troða
halir helveg, en himinn klofnar.



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